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ICME 11: Discussion group 28: The role of professional associations in mathematics education: locally, regionally, and globally
Report on the survey of mathematics societies around the world
Note to readers: This paper in particular the conclusions and recommendations will be finalized after the discussions at ICME11.
Background
During the Fall 2007, the team for the Discussion Group 28 launched a survey to collect information about mathematics associations around the world. The surveys items were:
Basic Information
1-Name
2-Country
3-Region in country (if applicable)
Contact details
4-Email contact
5- Mail contact
6- Phone contact
7- Website
About the Association
8- Aims, Mission, Purposes
9- Main mathematical focus
10- Main educational level(s)
11- Governance and administration
12- Number of members
13- Description of members
Main Activities
14- Means of communication
15- Journals
16- PD meetings
17- Student activities
18- Policy influences
Other Information
19- Within country links
20- Existing international links
21- Other information
22- Contact of respondent (for clarification of responses only)
Responses
The survey was written in English, but there was an option to read and to answer it in Spanish, because of the expected strong attendance of Iberoamerican mathematics educators at this ICME Congress.
There were responses from 53 societies in total; 24 in Spanish and 29 in English.
Responses in Spanish
The following societies provided responses in Spanish:
Sociedad Matemtica de Nicaragua
Asociacin Matemtica Venezolana
Asociacin Venezolana de Educacin Matemtica
Asociacin Colombiana de Matemtica Educativa
Sociedad Chilena de Educacin Matemtica
Sociedad Argentina de Educacin Matemtica
Societat Balear de Matemtiques*
Federacin Iberoamericana de Sociedades de Educacin Matemtica***
Sociedad Boliviana de Educacin Matemtica
Asociacin Castellano y Leonesa de Educacin Matemtica*
Sociedad Cubana de Matemtica y Computacin
Federaci d'Entitats per a l'Ensenyament de les Matemtiques a Catalunya*
Sociedad Castellano-Manchega de Profesores de Matemticas*
Sociedad Matemtica de Profesores de Cantabria*
Sociedad Canaria de Profesores de Matemticas*
Federacin Espaola de Sociedades de Profesores de Matemticas**
Comit de Educacin Matemtica del Paraguay
Sociedad Peruana de Educacin Matemtica
Sociedad Riojana de Profesores de Matemticas*
Societat d'Educaci Matemtica de la Comunitat Valenciana*
Sociedad Melillense de Educacin Matemtica*
Sociedad de Educacin Matemtica de la Regin de Murcia*
Sociedad de Educacin Matemtica Uruguaya
Asociacin Nacional de Profesores de Matemticas (Mxico)
Regarding this list we must take into consideration several facts:
Ten of the above societies, those marked with *, correspond to societies located in Spain, each one with a specific regional area of influence (Catalunya, Murcia, Rioja, Canarias, etc.).
Moreover, the Federacin Espaola de Sociedades de Profesores de Matemticas (highlighted in the above list by **) is not a different society, but a (powerful) coordination scheme for the different regional teachers associations within Spain.
Likewise, the Federacin Iberoamericana de Sociedades de Educacin Matemtica (emphasized above by ***) is a cooperation scheme for the Iberoamerican societies.
Some other societies or institutions, located in Spain or within the Iberoamerican area (in the cultural sense of this concept), have preferred to answer the Survey in English.
For instance, the Real Sociedad Matemtica Espaola and the Associaci de professors i mestres de matemtiques (both in Spain), the Sociedade Portuguesa de Matemtica and the Associao de Professores de Matemtica (both in Portugal) the Sociedade Brasileira de Educaao Matemtica (from Brazil), or the Comit Interamericano de Educacin Matemtica (CIAEM).s
The list above shows data for:
Two federations (one at the country level, for Spain; another at the Iberoamerican level)
Twelve different countries (Nicaragua, Venezuela, Colombia, Chile, Argentina, Espaa, Bolivia, Cuba, Paraguay, Per, Uruguay and Mxico)
As mentioned above, Spain is represented, in the Spanish language responses, through ten different societies and one Federation, Venezuela also appears represented twice.
Responses in English
The following societies provided responses:
International Commission for study and improvement of mathematics education (CIEAEM; International)
Inter American Committee of Mathematics Education (IACME; International)
Math in School is Art for Social Change (International)
Irish Mathematical Society (Ireland)
British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics (BSRLM; UK)
Swedish Association of Mathematics Teachers (SMaL; Sweden)
The Mathematical Association (UK)
ApaMMs - Associacion de professors i Mestres de Matematiques (Catalunya, Spain)
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (USA)
Sociedade Portuguesa de Matemtica (Portuguese Mathematical Society)
Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (Canada)
Math-teachers organization (Denmark)
Associao de Professores de Matemtica (APM; Portugal)
Forum for Research in Mathematics Education (Denmark)
Institute of Mathematics and Its Applications (UK) the Irish branch also responded.
Greek Association of Researchers in Mathematics Education
SESAMATH (France)
Gruppo di Ricerca sull'Insegnamento delle Matematiche (GRIM; Sicily, Italy)
Real Sociedad Matemtica Espaola (RSME; Spain)
The Royal Statistical Society (UK) a response was also received from the Royal Statistical Society Centre for Statistical Education (RSSCSE)
APMEP: Association des Professeurs de Mathmatiques de l'Enseignement Public (free public education mathematics teachers society; France)
Gesellschaft fr Didaktik der Mathematik (GDM; Germany)
Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers Inc. (AAMT; Australia)
Auckland Mathematical Association (New Zealand)
Saskatchewan Mathematics Teachers' Society (SMTS; Canada))
The Quebec Association of Mathematics Teachers (Canada)
British Columbia Association of Mathematics Teachers (an affiliate of the NCTM; Canada)
Summary of respondents
In the table below the responses are categorized according to the name of the society, their membership base (ie the description of members provided and main focus (see later section for a discussion of these categories).
International (membership and purposes across national borders)National (mostly confined to one country)Regional (established in a single region of a country)Mathematics0 Eng + 0 Sp6 Eng + 3 Sp0 Eng + 0 SpMathematics education research2 Eng + 0 Sp4 Eng + 0 Sp1 Eng + 0 SpMathematics teachers/teaching1 Eng + 1 Sp9 Eng + 10 Sp6 Eng + 10 SpSurvey findings
On basic information and contact details
The information is provided, in the great majority of cases, by the president or the secretary of the society and includes email and phone contact data. Most of the responding societies have a web site. In fact, only nine societies have not provided a specific URL.
Aims, Mission, Purposes, Main mathematical and educational focus
Here the responses split in two different directions. On the one hand, there are societies that aim to support Mathematics (research, dissemination, education, etc.) in all generality. On the other hand, there are societies that regard Mathematics Education (in a broad sense, including a majority of teachers as members, and not only researchers in Mathematics Education) as their specific field of interest. This fact can be related to the existence, or not, in the same country, of another society with specific aims towards Mathematics Research.
This is clear in the many regional societies within Spain, that are clearly devoted to Mathematics Education, since the Real Sociedad Matemtica Espaola takes care of Mathematics Research issues. This also happens, for instance, in the Sociedad Peruana, or in the Comit de Educacin Matemtica del Paraguay, or in the Mexican Asociacin Nacional de Profesores de Matemticas, etc. devoted to Math Education. On the other hand, for instance, we have the Sociedad Cubana, with general aims towards Mathematics, or the already mentioned Real Sociedad Matemtica Espaola, or the Asociacin Matemtica Venezolana or the Sociedad Matemtica de Nicaragua, etc.
This is an important issue. The (not always easy) co-existence of societies of general purpose (constituted mainly by mathematicians related to research and university teaching, but which nevertheless do extend their influence to school mathematics matters) and societies of specific educational purpose (related to school mathematics and to teacher training). The survey shows that this co-existence is well spread, but does not provide means to analyze it further.
There are three broad categories of aims and purposes among the English language respondents. These are used in the table above. For the most part the use of the term teacher in the name of the society points to a major focus on Mathematics teachers/teaching; similarly those societies with a focus on Mathematics education research typically have the term research(er) in their name. When neither of these terms are included or implied in the name the society tends to have its focus in the discipline of mathematics (or statistics). There are exceptions, however. The Mathematical Association and some regional groups such as the Auckland Mathematical Society (and others known of in Australia) are very clearly focused on Mathematics teachers/teaching.
These categorizations are not exclusive, of course, with many societies having interest and substantial engagement in more than one category. For example, the NCTM cites the support of teachers as its main aim. As part of achieving this, the NCTM publishes the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education which is among the most respected journals in mathematics education research. The Royal Statistical Society is primarily involved with the overall field of statistics it does, however, have a significant initiative in statistics education through its Centre for Statistical Education.
The societies set their sights high. The statements of Aims, mission, purposes typically include statements that are about service and achieving a vision of the greater good of mathematics, the teaching and earning of mathematics, research in mathematics education, and the community as a whole. A selection of these is included below:
Supporting research in mathematics education:
enhance collaboration between teachers and researchers
implementation of theories from other fields
sharing research in mathematics education
promote research and development work
academic and scientific links and activities between mathematics educators
strengthen research activity in Mathematics Education
to study the theories and practices of the teaching of mathematics
stimulate the interchange of ideas and experiences
coordinate the efforts of researchers towards promoting research in mathematics education
Supporting the work of teachers:
spread results from research, development work and experimental work
promote teacher education, in-service training and postgraduate studies
Improve methodology of math teachers
vision, leadership and professional development to support teachers
support people who are involved in critical mathematics education
curriculum development, implementation & evaluation
enable teachers to meet and discuss teaching techniques
foster courses for teachers of mathematicst
assist teachers of mathematics to keep abreast of current trends and recent advances
discussion and implementation of innovative pedagogical practices
share resources and professional tools between maths teachers
promoting professional development in all aspects of math education
The community, students and mathematics:
foster and promote mathematical knowledge throughout the community
improve math capabilities of our students
public voice of mathematics education
ensuring equitable mathematics learning of the highest quality for all students.
increase awareness of mathematics as a tool for renaming one's world
student involvement in mathematics
promote greater interest in the effective study in mathematics
participate at all levels in the area of curriculum development and to make appropriate recommendations
influence educational policy decisions,
improvement of statistical education for people of all ages: school, university and the workplace.
represent and promote interests in mathematics education
Support mathematics
promotes and supports understanding, teaching, research and applications of mathematics
promote and extend the knowledge of Mathematics and its applications
promote mathematical research
Whilst the different societies have different terminology for their aspirations and their work, it seems that their intentions commonly cluster in these groupings.
There were two societies that cited a specific aspect of mathematics as their main focus. One of these was in the areas of statistics. This is arguably a domain so large that it is logical that there it does form such a focus for a society. The other was a small group that operates virtually (via FaceBook) with a focus in the area of critical mathematics. The Internet may be a vehicle for the development of special interest groups such as this as it is clear from the rest of the responses that there are not formal associations (at least from those having answered our survey) devoted to specific aspects of Mathematics (Dynamic Geometry software, Problem Solving, Algebra and History of Mathematics in Math Education, etc.). Such groups of interest are, probably, constituted either outside of the Math Associations (Cabri and GeoGebra group users, for instance, established by the software providers) or without specific personality within the Mathematics Associations. Analyzing this situation further could be of interest, especially in the context of the opportunities for collaboration provided by the Internet.
Governance and administration, Number of members, Description of members
There is nothing remarkable about the management of the different associations (assembly of members, council, sometimes regional boards, etc.). Perhaps it is interesting to observe that some societies have stated that the different staff members work ad honorem, ie. without being paid for their work. We guess that this is a general situation, even if not specifically stated in the survey responses. We are far from a professional management scheme for these mathematics societies.
There is a great variation concerning the number of members (even greater concerning active members). It ranks form a few tenths (case of the Sociedad Peruana, the Comit de Educacin Matemtica de Paraguay, of some regional societies in Spain, etc.) to the declared 27.000 members of the Federacin Iberoamericana de Sociedades de Educacin Matemtica (FISEM).
One can have a rough estimation about the reason for this large number by considering that the Sociedade Brasileira de Educaao Matemtica (a member of the FISEM) declares 15.000 members, and the Federacin Espaola de Sociedades de Profesores de Matemticas (also in FISEM) has 5.500 associates. Without having at hand the figures for the Associao de Professores de Matemtica (in FISEM) (since their responses where not in Spanish), we can imagine that much less than 6.500 members correspond to the other federated societies at Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay, Per, Uruguay and Venezuela. With the exception of Uruguay (with circa 500 members of the Sociedad de Educacin Matemtica Uruguaya, a considerable number for a small country), and the two Venezuelan associations (circa 1.000 members in total), the remaining figures show all less than 200 members. Therefore, we have some doubts about the validity of the declared 27.000 members of the FISEM.
Other large figures are those of the Real Sociedad Matemtica Espaola, that declares 1.700 members (not included in the Federacin Espaola de Sociedades de Profesores de Matemticas), the Mexican Asociacin Nacional de Profesores de Matemticas including 2.500 associates and the Sociedad Cubana de Matemtica y Computacin, with over 750 members. These are non-FISEM members.
Some conclusions about these figures are:
the existence of great differences among countries (for instance, Uruguay/Paraguay or Mxico/Brazil, with the second country in each of these couples roughly doubling the population of the first; or Venezuela/Per, with a similar population)
the need to address specific actions to foster mathematics associations in some countries (perhaps through temporal, regional federations), achieving in this way a minimum size that allows having some real impact in society.
All the societies reported that the governance of their organization is in the hands of volunteers. There were various names for this group including council, committee, board of directors and executive. All of the regional mathematics teacher groups indicated that they are affiliated with a national body, in much the same way as the regional teacher groups in Spain are members of the national Federacin Espaola de Sociedades de Profesores de Matemticas.
The societies with the smallest numbers of members were those with a focus on mathematics education research. The smallest were less than 100, with the largest around 300. Next largest on average were the regional mathematics teacher groups. These ranged up to 1000 members. None of the societies in these two smallest groups reported employing paid staff.
The societies with a focus on mathematics, and mathematics research that are located in relatively populous countries (Spain, UK etc) have memberships in the thousands. The smallest in this group was, not surprisingly from a small country (Ireland; 300) members. Some of these societies reported employing paid staff.
The national mathematics teacher organizations that responded all have memberships numbering in the thousands. Most also reported employing paid staff. The organization that stands out from all others is the NCTM, with membership well over 100 000 and a staff of 100. This makes it an order of magnitude greater than any of the other groups.
Main Activities: journals, meetings, policy influence, students activities.
Obviously, in view of such large differences among the size of the societies, their level of activity is also very different. Large societies usually publish one of more journals or bulletins; small ones do not have any communication means. But it is remarkable the lack of publications by the Mexican society (with 2.500 declared members).
All of the respondents in English indicated that they use a newsletter (hard copy and/or electronic) and/or an email list as means of communication. Professional journals are published by the vast majority of the societies. These range from annual to 10 issues per year, with most distributed a few times per year. Some of the journals are made available electronically (via websites).
On the other hand, almost all societies confirm that one of the most common roles is that of organizing courses and seminars, conferences and congresses of direct relevance to their members and their interests. These societies see this face-to-face provision of opportunities for professional contact as a major role. There are formal conferences and courses, but also meetings with much less formal intentions such as sharing teaching strategies or findings from research.
Now, concerning their influence in the Administration policy for mathematics at school, we observe remarkable differences among the societies. Some large societies, such as the Federacin Espaola de Sociedades de Profesores de Matemticas, declare having a rather small influence in the Administration policy, while the Brazilian society states that Since its beginnings SBEM has played an important role in brazilean public educational policies related to Mathematical Education. On the other hand, smaller societies with comparable size (Asociacin Matemtica Venezolana and the Asociacin Venezolana de Educacin Matemtica) diverge in their appreciation: one declares no success in this issue, while the other participates in the corresponding Ministerial Commission for Mathematics. The Colombian association, with less than 100 members, does participate in setting the Administration policy for math education. Again, the Chilean association (160 members) declares that some of its members do have influence at this level. But the Uruguayan society, reasonable large for the population of the country, does not have such influence. The Cuban (quite large) or the Peruvian (quite small) society, does not answer this entry of the survey. The Bolivian association confesses not having any particular influence, but their teacher training courses have official recognition, and so on.
Many of the societies outlined the means they use to try to influence policy. Among those reporting the least amount of influence were the organisations involved in research in mathematics education, and the regional mathematics teachers groups. For some, influencing policy is an active priority we have been increasingly active in promoting mathematics education; NCTM has focused on advocacy as one of it five strategic initiatives whilst others tend to provide responses when invited. One respondent may have captured the essence of the experience of professional societies in trying to influence policy:
While I would not say we have enjoyed total resounding success, it might well be that things would be much worse were it not for our influence and lobbying.
We think one of the most fundamental roles of math associations, besides being a mechanism for sharing didactical experiences and situations and for helping developing teachers profession in all respects (training, up-dating, addressing common labor problems), is that of being an interlocutor with the corresponding Administration concerning Mathematics Education policy. The survey shows this second aspect is not well achieved by many associations, regardless of size or economic level of their country of reference. Thinking about different methods (for instance, through ICMI, CIAEM or through other international entities) for helping societies achieving this goal, could be a subject of discussion at ICME. In fact, most societies declare to have formal contacts with other societies, to belong to federations (such as FISEM or UMALCA), but it seems it does not have any real impact in their influence.
Finally, many societies reported organizing activities for students, mostly around the preparation of Mathematical Olympiads. There was no question in the Survey about number of student-members.
Conclusions
To be completed after ICME11
Recommendations
The Discussion Group may agree some key directions and make recommendations about furthering the work of collaboration between societies.
References
The following are some initial thoughts about references; again the Discussion Group will be able to augment this material
I think it could be relevant (for your global report and/or for the Spanish version) the link
HYPERLINK "http://www.colmatelat.ehu.es/"http://www.colmatelat.ehu.es/
where the Real Sociedad Matematica Espaola keeps the portal "Network of Latin-American mathematical organizations". This portal includes, in particular, a page on the "White Book" (Libro Blanco) of Latinamerican Societies. You can download (seeHYPERLINK "http://www.colmatelat.ehu.es/LibroBlanco.html"http://www.colmatelat.ehu.es/LibroBlanco.html )the book on the "Analysis and perspectives of Latin-American cooperation on mathematics" (which is the result of a large meeting that took place on Santiago de Compostela, Sept. 2003). What is more relevant is that, on pages XII and XIII you can find a list of associations that participated on the meeting (about 25 societies), with their web pages ready to copy and paste.
Of course some of these societies are not for education, but many coincide with those that have answered our survey. On page 175 there is an interesting paper by Ana Bela, on the Cooperation between Latinamerican societies...(in portuguese).
The reference to the printed edition of this book is
Analisis y Perspectivas de la Colaboracion Latinoamericana en MatematicasLuis A. Cordero et al. Editors.Real Sociedad Matematica Espaola, Madrid, 2004.ISBN: 84-933610-2-X
Another reference that might be interesting to mention in our documents is the book
Curriculo y Matematicas en la Enseanza Secundaria en IberoamericaA. Maz, M. Torralbo, C. AbrairaServicio de Publicaciones, Universidad de Cordoba, 2002.ISBN 84-7801-648-1
This contains a review of the secondary education math curriculum in nine countries (Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Cuba, Spain, Mexico, Venezuela, Portugal, Colombia).
HYPERLINK "http://dg.icme11.org/tsg/show/29#inner-26" http://dg.icme11.org/tsg/show/29#inner-26
HYPERLINK "http://www.furb.br/ciaem/" http://www.furb.br/ciaem/
Includes RSME (Spain) and SPM (Portugal)
Includes CIAEM
Includes ApaMMs (Catalunya, Spain)
Warning: in Spanish, Profesor does not mean precisely the same as Professor in English, and this can be a source of misunderstandings, interpreting the Survey responses. In Spanish, Profesor addresses both a teacher at elementary level or a professor at university level. It is a very democratic language: a docent, a profesor.
As a historical note, a number of the groups formed in the states (provinces) of Australia were originally direct affiliates of the Mathematical Association in the UK as a vestige of prior colonial status. This is probably the cause of this type of naming.
It may be that some respondents were not clear that this question was seeking this information.
HYPERLINK "http://umalca.usach.cl/" http://umalca.usach.cl/
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